Both effects together are called either anaphora broad sense or less ambiguously, along with self-reference they comprise the category of endophora. Traficant, Congressional Record--House, September 25, "After she declared herself 'broken, betrayed, at bay, really low' in another organ yesterday, I'm not sure the Diary should even mention poor Bel Mooney's name.
Same as previous sentence, in German. Susan dropped the plate. The set of ice-cream-eating-children in example b is introduced into the discourse, but then the pronoun they refers to the set of non-ice-cream-eating-children, a set which has not been explicitly mentioned.
The question spun round and round in his head and it slowly started to push every other logical argument to the sides, like a massive centrifuge. Non-strict cataphora of this sort can occur in many contexts, for example: A little girl, Jessica, was playing on the swings.
In the first place anaphora represents one of the most complex phenomena of natural language.